David Cameron never really envisaged losing the referendum, hence he paid no attention to the timing of it should he lose it. However, the state of national politics across many European countries is febrile and within twelve months it is quite conceivable that the four largest countries in the EU will all have different leaders and potentially these new leaders will all be from different parties than rule today. This will have a major effect on the outcome of the exit negotiations.
In Germany the next general election is set for September next year. Ahead of the 2013 election Angela Merkel indicated that she would step down before the next election – this promise has not been repeated since that election but she is yet to confirm that she will stand for re-election next year. She is one of the most experienced and highly regarded politicians globally but her stance over the migrant crisis, being happy to accept over 1 million migrants into Germany over the last year or so, has damaged the standing of her and her CDU party in Germany. Should she decide to stand down, the EU will lose its most powerful politician and Germany’s influence within Europe will decline; should she decide to stand again she might find that her CDU party garners less seats than the centre-left SPD party, her current coalition partner. Recent local and regional elections have been notable for the surge in popularity of AfD, a party that began life on an anti-euro platform but which in recent times has shifted right to become firmly anti-immigrant and anti-Muslim. The proportional voting system in Germany means they are likely to gain seats in the new Parliament and become a meaningful force in German politics
In France, there will be a Presidential election in April. The two-stage process, where the two candidates with the highest number of votes in the first round are the only ones on the ballot for the second round, combined with a large number of potential candidates make for a lot of uncertainty. Currently Marine Le Pen of the Front Nationale, whose major policy is firmly anti-euro and anti-immigration, looks set to gain the most first round votes and be in the final ballot where she would be expected to lose against most others, but it is very unclear who the other candidate might be. From the centre-right of French politics Alain Juppe, a former prime minister and Nicholas Sarkozy the previous President are the two leading candidates, whilst from the left President Hollande is very unpopular and has yet to decide if he will stand again – two members of his government, Manuel Valls and Emmanuel Macron have already announced they are candidates. The current polls indicate that should Hollande stand he would fail to reach the second round, which would be a huge political embarrassment for him.
In Italy, the current prime minister Matteo Renzi has called a referendum on some constitutional changes to reduce the powers of the Upper House and regional governments, that he feels are necessary to deliver structural reforms to the Italian economy. The referendum result is likely to be close – it will be held between November 20 and December 4. He has repeatedly said that he will resign as prime minister and leave politics if his reforms are rejected. On current polling the anti-EU and anti-establishment Five Star Movement is leading though their leader, Beppe Griilo is himself not permitted to be elected to parliament due to a previous conviction
In Spain, there was an election in December 2015 but this produced an inconclusive result and it had not proven possible for any combination of parties to agree on a forming a government with a parliamentary majority. Mariano Rajoy the prime minister before the election has continued in office without sufficient votes in parliament to pursue his policies. Nine months of inter-party talks have failed to resolve the situation and the most likely outcome is another election soon. However current polling indicates that the likely outcome would remain very unclear.
With these four large Eurozone economies facing such political uncertainty, in terms of who will lead and what their policies will be, it seems unlikely that Brexit discussions / negotiations will achieve much forward momentum for some time. For markets, European economic policy will remain dependent on ECB decisions as little progress from fiscal policy or structural reforms can be expected either.